This is some stuff I found, everyone most likely knows this stuff but here goes; 1. The lightweight aluminium cylinder features a ceramic composite coating which is applied directly to the aluminium, eliminating the need for a heavy iron sleeve or liner. The ceramic coating insures faster, more uniform heat dissipation, reduced friction and a longer service life. 2. Piston oil cooler utilizes a pinpoint nozzle that directs oil to the desired portion of the cylinder and underside of the piston, which reduces piston, cylinder and rod temperatures for great durability. 3. Centrally located spark plug and the new design of the 4-valve head promotes a "tumbling effect" of the inbound fuel / air for better combustion, improved throttle response and power output. 4. The "reversed" design allows for a straight intake path into the cylinder, providing maximum intake flow and efficiency for excellent power. The front positioned intake means that engine heat will have less "heating effect" on the incoming fuel charge (cooler fuel helps increase power). 5. Lightweight titanium valves (intake & exhaust) and new load-reduced oval valve springs reduce reciprocating mass for less friction, faster-revving and smoother-hitting power delivery across the rev range. 6. The cylinder is "offset" relative to the crankshaft to reduce frictional losses between the piston and the cylinder wall during the power stroke. This offset design is a first on a Yamaha motocross machine. 7. The cylinder is "offset" relative to the crankshaft to reduce frictional losses between the piston and the cylinder wall during the power stroke. This offset design is a first on a Yamaha motocross machine. 8. New, more rigid crankcase to accommodate the increased engine power 9. New design crankcase utilizes an integrated oil tank inside the cases to supply oil to the dry sump lubrication system. This design concentrates mass lower in the frame for optimum handling and lighter weight feeling. There are no exterior oil lines with this design and the internal oil tank is designed to promote air - oil separation. 10. Special cylinder design features cutaways that allow the air "trapped" under the piston to enter a side chamber (or cutaway) to reduce horsepower-robbing "pumping losses." 11. The crankcase also utilizes cutaways to reduce "pumping losses". The crankcase cutaways match the cutaways in the cylinder for maximum efficiency. 12. All new short-skirt, forged piston provides excellent reliability, less mechanical vibration and reduced weight. 13. Newly designed piston rings reduce friction for improved power and reduced oil consumption. 14. Revised, lightweight gear driven balancer shaft reduces vibration for improved rider comfort and less rider fatigue. 15. The crankcase features a tri-axis layout for the crank, main and drive axles. This tri-axis design keeps the crankcase more compact while also centralizing mass for excellent handling. All of the shafts are positioned low in the cases to maintain a low centre of gravity. 16. Revised multi-plate wet clutch features a new clutch push lever assembly and revised push rod. The benefit is improved clutch feel and reduced clutch lever effort. 17. Revised, 5-speed transmission features "involute splines" on the transmission axles to ensure smooth shifting and instant hook-up under power. There are numerous changes to the transmission including engagement dog shape, shift cam "pattern" and revised shift forks. The benefit is smooth, positive shifting. 18. All new Keihin 44mm throttle body fuel injection system is a battery-less design for reduced weight and is designed specifically for MX applications. The 12-hole injector maximizes fuel atomization for more complete combustion and great power output. The benefits of fuel injection include constant ongoing adjustments to insure the optimum fuel - air ratio regardless of outside air temperature and altitude. Other benefits include improved starting and improved throttle response. The system is equipped a throttle position sensor (TPS), plus a range of sensors (engine temp, outside air temp and air pressure etc.). There is also a cold start and fast idle knob which doubles as an idle adjuster too.